What amount of course maintenance and related costs are involved?

Much depends on whether holes are mostly in the open or in the woods. Wooded holes have much higher upfront costs for clearing, depending on who does the work. However, maintenance can be minimal other than occasionally trimming some new growth limbs and possibly spreading wood chips on the fairways every few years. Open holes require some level of regular grass mowing but every 2-3 weeks may be fine. Hard surface tees may need to have dirt or gravel added in front of the tees every year or two to deal with wear. If natural tees are used, then it may be necessary to move them every few years and fill in the worn areas. Some park departments regularly dump wood chips around the baskets every year to reduce the natural wear that occurs from player traffic.